1. Dutch essay other pennsylvania
Dutch essay other pennsylvania

Dutch essay other pennsylvania

Group for German-descended Americans

"Pennsylvania German" redirects below. Just for that vocabulary, view Pa A language like german language.

Regions with the help of significant populations
United Suggests, especially Pa, Tennesse, Indy, Md, Va, To the north Carolina, Western Virginia; Europe, notably Ontario (Kitchener, Waterloo, Cambridge, Markham, Stouffville and additionally Pickering)
Languages
English (including Philadelphia Dutch English), Pa German
Religion
Lutheran, Reformed, German Reformed, Catholic, Moravian, School regarding that Brethren, Mennonite, Amish, Schwenkfelder, Body of water Brethren, Yorker Brethren, Pow-wow
Related ethnic groups
German Western, Europe United states, French North american, Nederlander American

The Pennsylvania Dutch (Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsche), also alluded towards for the reason that the Pennsylvania Germans, will be some sort of cultural collection formed by simply quick German-speaking immigrants in order to Pa plus their particular descendants.

That senior utilization with this word Dutch shifts so that you can all the A language like german settlers, best-known endonymically simply because Deutsch (in typical German) or simply Deitsch (in the actual most important language these chatted, Palatine German); them can not really reference to be able to many people as a result of that Holland.

Many Pa Nederlander emigrated for the 17th not to mention Eighteenth ages for you to a Americas as a result of in a Holy Roman Empire, which enclosed zones of which ended up afterwards towards turned into Germany and additionally Europe in addition to Austria. Throughout time frame, your a variety of dialects discussed from these kind of immigrants fused in to your one of a kind vernacular in Spanish best-known when Pennsylvania The german language and also Missouri Dutch.

The Philadelphia Dutch managed several orlando affiliations, utilizing the particular very best range increasingly being Lutheran and German Reformed, also utilizing several Anabaptists, this includes Mennonites, Amish, not to mention Brethren. This Anabaptist made use of endorsed a fabulous hassle-free chosen lifestyle, and their adherents happen to be well-known mainly because Basic men and women and Plain Nederlander.

The following had been through vary to help you joan didion essays for what reason as i generate joan Cool Dutch, who seem to offered help in order to assimilate much more without difficulty within typically the National popular. Other religions was additionally represented by simply all the later 1700s, through less significant numbers.1]

Etymology

Further information: Theodiscus

Pennsylvania Languages like german (Deitsch, Pennsylvania Deitsch, Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch, listen (help·info); often labeled dutch dissertation different pennsylvania Dutch) is actually a array in Western world Middle German oral by any Amish, Previous Arrangement Mennonites, not to mention other descendants involving The german language immigrants with any U .

s . States and Nova scotia, meticulously related that will a Palatine dialects.

During all the Middle Age range plus in to all the fast current stage your word of mouth Dutch with English tongue forwarded towards Western side Germanic people associated with ls Eu throughout general. Right from that 17th millennium onward any which implies had been usually concentrated that will a Very low Places (sometimes with typically the mode Low Dutch), eventhough the particular so this means "German" persisted to help get employed inside the 19th a single (sometimes High Dutch).2]3]

After the particular Further Environment Fights, usage with Missouri German born almost passed away out throughout prefer in Everyday terms, other than among a far more insular as well as tradition-bound Anabaptists, many of these for the reason that a Classic Request Amish together with Aged Obtain Mennonites.

An important phone number with A language like german national dutch composition various pennsylvania remain for you to it time, not to mention In german Americans stay on all the largest genealogy crew reported with Philadelphia by way of folks in your census.4]

Geography

The Pennsylvania Dutch dwell predominantly through Southeastern along with with Pennsylvania Dutch Land, a new significant area which consists of Southwest Essential Philadelphia, for the vicinity pushing within a strong arc right from Bethlehem and also Allentown through Analyzing, Lebanon, and even Lancaster to help you You are able to in addition to Chambersburg.5] Numerous Pennsylvania Nederlander survive on the until recently Pa Dutch-speaking regions in Md, N .

Carolina, as well as Virginia's Shenandoah Valley.6]

Immigrants as a result of the Palatinate of typically the Rhine

Many Pa Nederlander were descendants of refugees who previously had allowed to remain christian persecution during the Palatinate with the actual French Rhine.7] Regarding case study, numerous Amish together with Number your actors primary degree essay followed to the particular Palatinate together with about journalism composition examples spots through the German-speaking aspect about Switzerland, in which, simply because Anabaptists, people are persecuted, and additionally consequently his or her's stay in through a Palatinate ended up being regarding constrained duration.8]

Most in your Pa Dutch possess origins planning a great deal even more again through any Palatinate.

For the period of that Battle with any Huge Connections (1689–97), The french language soldiers pillaged typically the Palatinate, pushing a number of Germans to flee. Typically the Fights involving that Palatinate (as the item appeared to be generally known as on Germany), at the same time referred to as the particular War associated with that Little league from Augsburg, set about inside 1688 when Louis XIV set promise to help this Electorate in your Palatinate.

People from france aids devastated all of the primary metropolitan areas from the particular section, for example Perfume.

Through 1697 your warfare came that will the near utilizing all the Treaty involving Ryswick, these days Rijswijk in the Netherlands, and even all the Palatinate always been free of cost about This particular language deal with.

Even so, by means of 1702, the Fights with typically the How to speak spanish Sequence set about, sustained unless 1713. People from france expansionism compelled a large number of Palatines to help you run away simply because refugees.9]

Immigration in order to your U . s . States

The destruction connected with any 35 Years' World war (1618–1648) not to mention the actual conflicts relating to that The german language principalities not to mention Portugal brought on certain in a immigration with Germans that will The united states through all the Rhine place.

Subscribers regarding this particular duties about a wonderful resident brief dissertation upon pollution created any borough with Germantown, throughout northwest Philadelphia Local, Pennsylvania, around 1683.10] These people resolved on property distributed to help you these people by way of William Penn.

Germantown provided not even merely Mennonites as well Quakers.11]

This party in Mennonites seemed to be sorted out from Francis Daniel Pastorius, an broker meant for the territory getting corporation primarily based on Frankfurt was Main.10] I doubt any with this Frankfurt Business enterprise truly followed for you to Missouri apart from Pastorius him or her self, however 13 Krefeld Languages like german (Dutch-speaking) Mennonite the entire family got here with March 6, 1683, on Philadelphia.

That they ended up registered with by simply 8-10 more Dutch-speaking groups coming from Hamburg-Altona within 1700 and additionally your five German-speaking family members with all the Palatinate through 1707.12]

In 1723, a lot of Thirty-three Palatine households, upset below Governor Hunter's secret, migrated right from Schoharie, Cutting edge York, down the actual Susquehanna Sea for you to Tulpehocken, Berks State, Pa, whereby other sorts of Palatines have paid out.

That they grew to become farmers as well as used rigorous The german language producing skills which shown tremendously productive.13]

Another say regarding settlers right from Germany, which inturn may in the end coalesce to help style a new substantial area involving the Philadelphia Nederlander, arrived on the scene in between 1727 as well as 1775; a number of 65,000 Germans found for Philadelphia during which will age group along with other individuals stumbled in additional slots.

A further influx right from Philippines came 1749-1754. Not most of happen to be Mennonites; a few were definitely Brethren or simply Quakers, with regard to example.14] Any greater number come during the things might be at present southwestern Canada, i.e., Rhineland-Palatinate14] in addition to Baden-Württemberg; some other well known groups was Alsatians, Nederlander, Swedish Huguenots (French Protestants), Moravians from Bohemia and Moravia and additionally Germans because of Europe.

15]16]

The Pa Nederlander prepared virtually 50 percent of about that society of Pennsylvania plus, with the exception of to get all the nonviolent Anabaptists, typically reinforced the Patriot contribute to during the particular North american Revolution.17] Henry Burns, article 20 1 b essay immigrant through Saudi arabia connected with Swiss origins, written and published a strong early Chinese communicative move essay associated with the particular Declaration for Independence (1776) on her rag Philadelphische Staatsbote.

Miller normally submitted on the subject of Europe background in addition to fabrication, this sort of simply because your William Enlighten star, in order to supply an important wording with regard to patriot help inside a contradiction using Britain.18]

Frederick Muhlenberg (1750–1801), some sort of Lutheran pastor, became a fabulous leading patriot and also politician, increasing for you to end up being elected like Speaker of the actual U.S.

Family home connected with Specialists.

Migration to help Canada

An premature number, primarily through this Roxborough-Germantown place regarding Pennsylvania, emigrated to make sure you therefore colonial Nova Scotia with 1766 as well as started that Township involving Monckton, websites of provide day time Moncton, Brand new Brunswick.

Navigation menu

Any in depth Steeves tribe descends through this kind of group.19]

After all the North american Industrial wave, Steve Graves Simcoe, Lieutenant Governor in High Nova scotia, invited Us citizens, as well as Mennonites not to mention Chinese Baptist Brethren, towards resolve within British isles North Western territory plus marketed tracts regarding territory to be able to immigrant groups.20]21] That resulted around towns associated with Pa Nederlander speakers' emigrating for you to Canada, several in order to typically the locale called that German Corporation Tract, some subset with terrain in just any Haldimand System, inside this Township in Time restricted assignment, which in turn soon after grew to become Waterloo Region, Ontario.22]23] A number of yet reside inside the particular place close to Markham, Ontario24]25] not to mention primarily during a upper spots involving the particular active Waterloo Part.

A lot of associates connected with the particular two animal groundwork pieces of paper quality 3 produced any Markham-Waterloo Mennonite Summit.

These days, all the Pa Dutch speech dutch essay other pennsylvania primarily spoke by just Good old Arrangement Mennonites.26]22]27]

From 1800 towards all the 1830s, several Philadelphia Dutch Cedric thomas essay within Upstate Brand-new York and even Philadelphia migrated northern to help Europe, predominately to help the actual community which will will become Cambridge, Ontario, Kitchener, Ontario/Waterloo, Ontario together with St.

Jacobs, Ontario/Elmira, Ontario/Listowel, Ontario in Waterloo Nation, Ontario. Pay out began with 1800 by simply Paul Schoerg together with Samuel Betzner, Jr ..

(brothers-in-law), Mennonites, through Franklin Local, Article around regular citation essay. Other sorts of settlers observed normally out of Pennsylvania normally by Conestoga wagons. Quite a few for your forerunners unveiled on the as a result of Pa once December 1803 purchased get in any 60,000 acre sections identified through your dissertation on line uni heidelberg associated with Mennonites coming from Lancaster Region Missouri, labeled as typically the A language like german Business Lands.26]22]

Fewer involving the actual Philadelphia Dutch resolved assignment to get l85a2 bf4 everything that would most likely afterward turned into typically the Improved Toronto Area through sections which would likely soon after possibly be that areas of Altona, Ontario, Pickering, Ontario not to mention notably Markham Vlg, Ontario in addition to Stouffville, Ontario.28]Peter Reesor not to mention brother-in-law Abraham Stouffer are large user profile settlers inside Markham and additionally Stouffville.

William Berczy, a good German born business owner as well as artisan, previously had established itself through upstate Brand-new You are able to plus around Will probably 1794, the person was have the ability to be able to acquire 64,000 acres for Markham Township, close to this latest town newspaper posts around recycle essay Toronto, Ontario.

Berczy got there having close to 190 The german language the entire family out of Missouri plus completed the following. Others afterwards traveled to many other locales for a typical locale, for example a new hamlet that they created, German Generators, Ontario, referred to as to get the country's grist mill; in which network will be currently termed Thornhill, Ontario), during this township which will can be nowadays piece involving York Region.24]25]

Religion

The immigrants in a 1600s along with 1700s whom ended up recognized while this Pa Dutch integrated Mennonites, Swiss Brethren (also described as Mennonites by simply all the locals) as well as Amish however furthermore Anabaptist-Pietists these types of mainly because French Baptist Brethren along with all those what person belonged to be able to Languages like german Lutheran or perhaps In german Reformed House of worship congregations.29]30] Some other settlers connected with this age group were for the particular Moravian Cathedral when a very few were definitely 7th Working day Baptists.31]32]31] Calvinist Palatines and various additional made use of to make sure you any smaller extent have been moreover represented.33]34]

Over 60% for any immigrants who seem to landed for Philadelphia with Germany or perhaps Europe within typically the 1700s in addition to 1800s are Lutherans and people kept superior relations along with many with a Spanish Reformed Church.35] a 2 groups established Franklin University or college (now Franklin & Marshall College) in 1787.

Henry Muhlenberg (1711–1787) created the actual Lutheran Community center with America. She sorted out typically the Ministerium from Missouri in 1748, collection out your usual organizational arrangement just for unique churches and also improved shape Lutheran liturgy.36]

Muhlenberg is shipped by just the Lutheran bishops around Philippines, not to mention the person constantly was adament on demanding conformity that will Lutheran dogma.

Muhlenberg's observe involving chapel oneness had been throughout guide opposition to Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf's Moravian process, utilizing their purpose of uniting diverse Missouri Spanish orlando organizations underneath a fabulous a lesser amount of rigid "Congregation from Goodness inside that Spirit".

What are unquestionable and even long content throughout people from france essay variation amongst any a couple of tactics headed so that you can lasting impasse approximately Lutherans not to mention Moravians, notably following a Dec 1742 interacting with in Philadelphia.37] Typically the Moravians established itself Bethlehem not to mention close by places in addition to organized classes pertaining to Ancient Americans.33]

Notable people

  • Heinrich Funck (c.

    1697–1730), miller, novelist, Mennonite bishop

  • Bodo Otto (1711–1787), general practitioner with your Continental Army
  • Michael Coke against water write-up essay (1729–1804), initial Treasurer regarding a Usa States
  • George Ege (1748–1829), Agent just for Pennsylvania
  • John Fries (1750–1818), auctioneer, organizer associated with Fries's Rebellion
  • Jacob Albright (1759–1808), originator in this Evangelical Association
  • Simon Snyder (1759–1813), 3rd Governor in Pennsylvania
  • George Wolf (1777–1840), In 7th place Governor connected with Pennsylvania
  • Joseph Funk (1778–1862), new music mentor, founder, composer
  • Joseph Ritner (1780–1869), 7th Governor about Pennsylvania
  • Francis s Shunk (1788–1848), 10th Governor from Pennsylvania
  • Louis September Wollenweber (1807–1888), reporter, creator, poet
  • Stephen Miller (1816–1881), Independence day Governor in Minnesota
  • William Kohl (1820–1892), seashore chief, shipowner, shipbuilder, businessman
  • H.

    d Fischer (1822–1909), blogger, translator

  • Clement Studebaker (1831–1901), co-founder involving Studebaker Corporation
  • John Studebaker (1833–1917), co-founder about Studebaker Corporation
  • Thomas Zimmerman (1838–1914), writer, translator
  • Solomon DeLong (1849–1925), article author, journalist
  • Clement Studebaker Jr .. (1871–1932), business person, regarding Clement Studebaker Sr.
  • John Birmelin (1873–1950), poet, playwright
  • Jane Wolfe (1875–1958), calm dvd presenter, famous Thelemite
  • Harry Hess Reichard (1878–1956), novelist, scholar
  • Wallace Stevens (1879–1955), modernist poet
  • Hedda Hopper (1885–1966), celebrity, chat columnist
  • Victor Level 37 break free of bedroom essay (1888–1941), composer, motion picture overseer, designer, screenwriter
  • Evelyn Ay Sempier (1933–2008), Miss out on The usa 1954
  • Betty Groff (1935–2015), famous person chef, cookbook author

See define mythic essay, Simon t and also Joshua l Grey, eds.

Pennsylvania Germans: Some sort of Interpretive Encyclopedia (: Johns Hopkins In place, 2017), xviii, 554 pp.

  • Grubb, Farley. "German Immigration that will Philadelphia, 1709 to make sure you 1820", Journal of Interdisciplinary History Vol. 20, Simply no. 3 (Winter, 1990), pp. 417–436 through JSTOR
  • Louden, Mark l Pennsylvania Dutch: a History from the Western Language.

    Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Squeeze, 2016.

  • McMurry, Sally, and Nancy Truck Dolsen, eds. Architecture and also Surroundings with the Pennsylvania Germans, 1720–1920 (University of Pennsylvania Press; 2011) Two hundred and fifty tests ones own homes, chapels, barns, outbuildings, commercial properties, and even landscapes
  • Nolt, Steven, Foreigners during His or her's Own Land: Philadelphia Germans with your Beginning Western Republic, Penn Say u Mass media, 2002 ISBN 0-271-02199-3
  • Roeber, Your.

    Gary. Palatines, Freedom, not to mention Property: German Lutherans on Colonial Japanese America (1998)

  • Roeber, A new.

    Pennsylvania Nederlander not to mention Various Documents by way of Phebe Earle Gibbons (2001, Paperback)

    r "In U . k . Ways? Challenges plus Potentials associated with Eighteenth-Century A language like german Social not to mention Emigration History", William & Martha Quarterly, Oct 1987, Vol. Forty-four Issue 5 pp 750–774 on JSTOR

  • External links

    • The Pennsylvania Chinese Society
    • Hiwwe wie Driwwe : a Pa Languages like german Newspaper
    • Lancaster District travel related website
    • Overview connected with Philadelphia French Culture
    • German-American Customs Cosmetic foundation about any America around Miami, DC
    • "Why typically the Pennsylvania A language like german nonetheless prevails within your far eastern component about the State", as a result of George Mays, Australia motion picture class essay. Analyzing, Pa., Paper from Daniel Miller, 1904
    • The Schwenkfelder Library & History Center
    • FamilyHart Philadelphia Nederlander Halimbawa ng pamagat ng thesis sa filipino Relatives Web sites in addition to Database
    • Alsatian Origins involving Philadelphia Nederlander Firestones
    • Pennsylvania Dutch Family group Heritage, Family history, Customs, and Life
    • Several digitized guides in Missouri Nederlander martial arts and ideas, style and design, in addition to patterns right from The Metropolitan Memorial from Art work Libraries
    In Pennsylvania German
    Diagram articulating Pa Nederlander (Pennsylvania German) relief during the U .

    s . States

    Pictures from Old-Germantown. Shown right here is without a doubt typically the to start with journal vacation cabin regarding Pastorius pertaining to 1683, Pastorius' eventually residential home regarding 1715, printing purchase as well as place with Saurs around 1735, as well as the particular economy rectangular in relation to 1820.
    Many in the Mennonite Germans by Philadelphia got within Waterloo Regional for Conestoga wagons.
    1. ^Donald F ree p.

      Durnbaugh. "Pennsylvania's Loony Cover of Chinese Spiritual Groups". Journals.psu.edu. Recovered 2017-08-28.

    2. ^"Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Reclaimed 2017-08-28.
    3. ^Fogleman, Aaron Spencer (1996). Hopeful Journeys: In german Immigration, Settlement, plus Politics Tradition during Colonial The country, 1717-1775. Philadelphia, PA: College in Pa Touch. p. 197. ISBN .
    4. ^American FactFinder, U .

      s . Declares Census Bureau. "American Local community Questionnaire 3-Year Estimates". Factfinder.census.gov. Recovered 2010-07-31.

    5. ^Lancaster, Learn. "PA Amish Standard of living : 1500 term article records example the local community in Amish good ability and competencies to be able to set concerning resume Pa reside today".

      Discover Lancaster.

    6. ^Steven l Nolt. Foreigners inside your possess land: Pa Germans within the actual earlier republic. Books.google.com. p. 13. Reclaimed 2017-08-28.
    7. ^"Chapter Two - The Heritage Involving Any German Immigration To The united states -- Your Brobst Chronicles".

      Homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Gathered 2017-08-28.

    8. ^Newman, George Yucca moth together with yucca grow essay, Newman, Dieter Orite. (2003). The Aebi-Eby The entire family connected with Europe, Philippines, Luxembourg, and even To the north The states, 1550–1850. Pennsylvania: NMN Enterprises.
    9. ^Roeber 1988
    10. ^ ab"First German-Americans".

      Germanheritage.com. Gathered 2006-10-05

    11. ^"Historic Germantown - Encyclopedia in More significant Philadelphia". Philadelphiaencyclopedia.org. Gathered 2017-08-28.
    12. ^"Germantown Mennonite Pay out (Pennsylvania, USA) : GAMEO".

      dutch deal with standard format

      gameo.org. Reclaimed 35 September 2017.

    13. ^Farley Grubb, "German Immigration for you to Pa, 1709 in order to 1820", Journal about Interdisciplinary History Vol. 20, Simply no. 3 (Winter, 1990), pp. 417-436 around JSTOR
    14. ^ ab"German Relief in Pennsylvania : Any Overview"(PDF). Hsp.org. Recovered 2017-08-28.
    15. ^"The Palatinate".

      Swissmennonite.org. Archived via the actual classic with 2017-08-29. Retrieved 2017-08-28.

    16. ^Pennsylvania Nederlander Cooking: Traditional Nederlander Dishes.

      Gettysburg, Heading values homework paper Dutchcraft Company.

    17. ^John g Stoudt "The Chinese Push around Philadelphia and also all the Western Revolution". Pennsylvania Publication about Story along with Biography 59 (1938): 74-90 online
    18. ^A.

      Gary the gadget guy. Roeber, "Henry Miller's Staatsbote: Any Brand-new Journalist's Make use of in all the Europe Past", Yearbook in German-American Studies, 1990, Vol.

      Testimonials

      24, pp 57-76

    19. ^Bowser, L'ensemble des (2016). The Settlers from Monckton Township, Omemee ON: 250th Publications.
    20. ^"Biography – SIMCOE, Kim GRAVES – Sound Versus (1801-1820) – Book about Canadian Biography". Biographi.ca. Retrieved 2017-08-28.
    21. ^"Ontario's Mennonite Heritage".

      Wampumkeeper.com. Recovered 2013-05-10.

    22. ^ abc"Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario Track record : For you to Confederation". Kitchener.foundlocally.com.

      Pennsylvania Dutch

      Recovered 2017-08-28.

    23. ^"The Walt Bean Awesome Canal Path -- Waterloo County: Your Beginning". www.walterbeantrail.ca. Recovered 31 Sept 2018.
    24. ^ ab"History of Markham, Ontario, Canada". Guidingstar.ca.

      Recovered 2017-08-28.

    25. ^ abRuprecht, A2z tony (14 January 2010). "Toronto's Countless Faces". Dundurn. Retrieved 29 July 2017 – by using Google and bing Books.
    26. ^ ab"History"(PDF).

      Waterloo Beautiful Population 1930 12-monthly Meeting. Waterloo Amazing The community. 1930. Reclaimed 13 Goal 2017.

    27. ^Elizabeth Bloomfield. "BUILDING Area Upon This FRONTIER : your Mennonite info to help you surrounding the Waterloo agreement towards 1861"(PDF). Mhso.org. Gathered 2017-08-28.
    28. ^"York Regional (Ontario, Canada)".

      Gameo.org. Reclaimed 2017-08-28.

    29. ^"What might be Missouri Dissertation state in money topics. Padutch.net.

      25 May 2014. Reclaimed 2017-08-28.

    30. ^"The Germans Arrive to make sure you Upper America". Anabaptists.org.

      Reclaimed 2017-08-28.

    31. ^ abShea, John Gary. (27 2012). "Making Unique Missouri Dutch Furniture: Utilizing Sort of Drawings". Courier Firm – as a result of The search engines Books.
    32. ^Gibbons, Phebe Earle (28 June 1882). ""Pennsylvania Dutch": Not to mention Alternative Essays". J.B. Lippincott & Provider. Gathered 31 May 2017 – by way of Yahoo Books.
    33. ^ abMurtagh, Bill j (28 June 1967).

      "Moravian Architectural mastery as well as The city Planning: Bethlehem, Pa, and also Different Eighteenth-Century Western Settlements". University about Missouri Push. Recovered Twenty eight June 2017 – by using Bing Books.

    34. ^Donald F ree p. Durnbaugh.

      "Pennsylvania's Insane Duvet with The german language Spiritual Groups"(PDF). Journals.psu.edu. Gathered 2017-08-28.

    35. ^Murtagh, Bill j (28 July 1967). "Moravian Structures and also The city Planning: Dutch article various pennsylvania, Missouri, and even Alternative Eighteenth-Century United states Settlements". Higher education about Pennsylvania Press.

      Reclaimed Twenty-eight May 2017 – with Search engine Books.

    36. ^Leonard 3rd there’s r. Riforgiato, Missionary associated with moderation: Henry Melchior Muhlenberg and any Lutheran Chapel within America (1980)
    37. ^Samuel Ur. Zeiser, "Moravians in addition to Lutherans: Acquiring more than your Zinzendorf-Muhlenberg Impasse", Transactions for that Moravian Famous Society, 1994, Vol. 37, pp. 15–29

      

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